Biological monitoring (or biomonitoring) is a fun, affordable, and effective approach to stream monitoring. It is a process of looking at a biological community in order to assess the overall “health” of an ecosystem such as a stream. Benthic macroinvertebrates (aquatic insects and other small stream-dwelling organisms) are often used for this purpose since they are found in all streams (except under extremely degraded conditions) and are relatively easy to collect. Many conservation organizations such as the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) and Izaak Walton League have established protocols and metrics for translating the composition of a BMI community into a water quality rating. Bio-monitoring gives a reliable, cost-effective, overall picture of water quality in a stream and is a great realm for citizen science engagement.